APA format is a style commonly used within the field of social sciences. It is a way to cite courses and is published by the American Psychological Association. Below is an example:
Humanistic psychology is a historical development which has positively altered relationships between both the patient and the therapist alike, as well as contributed to the advancement in therapeutic techniques. Thanks, first and foremost, for this newly established branch of psychological learning and teaching is owed to Alfred Adler who was one of the first to oppose Freud’s theory of little personal contact with patients, and followed by Sandor Ferenczi with his work in opposition of Freud in 1923. (Hoffman, 2003) Being heavily influenced by this great learner, the roots of humanistic psychology are also deeply entrenched in Maslow’s theory of human needs. Because of these great historical figures and their contributions to this development, humanistic psychology has become the highly developed system it is today, leading us to constructive and influential assistance in both psychological treatment and social transformations throughout the world.
Alfred Adler was one of 35 members of the Vienna Society who eventually left and founded what is now referred to as the Society for Individual Psychology. He personally disagreed with Freud’s theory of the least amount of contact with patients and least amount of personal interaction as possible; contributing to a patronizing, dominant relationship between patients and therapists. This idea was pursued also by Sandor Ferenczi who began with work most important to psychoanalysis. “Humanistic psychology evolved partly as a response to the teachings of psychoanalysis…” (Hoffman, 2003, p.60) Through encounters with patients who were not able to simply lie down and talk, but needed to get up and move about the room, as well as confrontation with patients who proved him wrong on occasion, Ferenczi was able to form a “genuine interpersonal encounter” (Hoffman, 2003, p. 62) with his patients, as opposed to the typical therapeutic relationships Freud, a long time friend and associate of Ferenczi, formed with his patients; that of an informal and dictatorial nature. He had begun his work alongside Freud, having been the first to travel with Freud to America in 1909. However, the relationship, as strong as it were, came to a halting end just like that of Adler and Freud, when major disagreements arose. (Hoffman, 2003)
Once Ferenczi wrote his first book, The Development of Psychoanalysis, he was able to advocate a drastic shift in the current theory and practice of psychotherapy which would lead to changes made in humanistic psychology. Ideas which have now been further investigated by humanistic psychologists, those based on the importance of a solid relationship with a patient as well as levels of personal involvement with the patient, were enacted thanks to Ferenczi and the neo-Freudians. The two main concepts he presented were “analyst self-disclosure and clinical empathy”. (Hoffman, 2003, p. 64) Through the implication of these two concepts, therapists were able to change relationships from paternalistic to democratic; ones which emphasized a mutually supportive partnership.
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